Gliger's Sketchbook
Was super tired yesterday

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cool way to study anatomy old farts won't tell you about, buy a 3d scan, deparate the body into sections with booleans, boom, you can study your contours and section cuts, and you can cut them in whatever angle you want, you could also do it with live booleans but your computer gonna laggggg, less so in zbrush

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also good for seeing the cross contours like this

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spent a long time wondering what this bump I saw on models was, seems to be some sort of extension of the it track, will look up the name later

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I don't see it in deep dissections so maybe it's fascia, ignore the highlit part

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the fascia lata definitely follows that rhythm in its lower thigh portion

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I'm not entirely certain that it's this and not some fascia or fat but

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that bit in the upper rectus femoris that looks like it attaches to the sartorius, I think it just the pennate division of the muscle

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dick and balls; anyways, the inner side of the upper thigh is at this interesting angle, big bump in the back from

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bump in the back is hamstrings with a bit of ass fat

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the curve in those wrinkles, always miss them

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thoracolumbar fascia

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that c shape of the tendon of the traps on the scapula

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it's an S curve, that goes pretty deep in, a lot of hte wrinkles in the human body, when they wrap around a cillinder, leave something like an "S" Shape

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that lose skin fold in the shoulder and shoulder pit, I ALWAYS MISS IT, IT'S SO USEFUL

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you can see the pecs from the lower back

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diffused is everything

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lotta fantastic reference here

bipennate rectus femoris

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Morning fellers

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I love how sarah simblet makes the fatty pads between the toes protrude forward, it's how it kind of is irl, but I always miss it

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the sartorius is a lot thicker than I usually draw it

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tryna figure out the general quadruped layout instead of any individual features

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you can show extra squash by wrinkling the lower part of the spine, it's alraedy pretty graphic by itself

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dog scapulas are suuuper close to the spine

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mammals with prehensile limbs tend to have strong clavicles, lotta room for attaching the traps and extra stuff

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coolio, also notice that "c" shape in the lower part of the traps connecting to the scapula, same as humans

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hello, still working on the general unspecified quadruped body plan

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the 3d reference I was using made the biceps overlap the pecs, unlike in humans, but after looking into it for a bit longer it seems the pecs kind of merge with the brachiocephalicus, and DO overlap the biceps, like in humans, also, lions have a ridiculously strong gracilis

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this dude's music choices lmfao

one's gotta wonder how the fuck it ended up connecting to the radius

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dooooope viiiiiid

there's this giant space between the spine and the posterior neck muscles, I assume there's some big nuchal ligament like in humans, or some fat under the muscle or something that isn't in the reference stuff I use

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those 2 bulks on the sides of the gracilis, believe it or not, adductor magnus

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super important to remember the shape of the tendonous parts of the traps and lats

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gotta get a subscription and watch this

yo, more quadrupeds

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still haven't studied the muscles of the leg propely, slowly diving into them

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like in humans, the curve of the oblique tendon kinda swings into the end of the illiac crest, gotta make sure to not send that curve past that point

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the brachoicephalicus is a bit confusing, I still don't know if it attaches to a nuchal ligament, some illustrations show it connecting directly to the vertebrae

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notice the size of the biceps femoris compared to the femur

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important to remember that the rectus femoris attaches to the anterior inferior illiac spine, while the tfl and sartorius to the superior one, and the difference in position between the superior and inferior ones in quadrupeds is WAAAAAAY larger than in humans

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I love Rose O'Neill


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carpal pads

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the triceps is confusing in cats

more quadrupeds

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weird neckssss

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although the second one is a reconstruction, important to note that the atlas seems to allow for quite a bit of range, in some cases it's almost perpendicular to the angle of the skull, so don't gotta go for a full S shape

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cool trachea

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favorite site in the whole world

cool laterally serrated lumbar vertebrae, 'cause of the big lateral spines

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nuchal ligaments

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crazy, the stay aparatus of horses, some other large mammals also have it

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good vid about the nuchal ligament

gooooood shit

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Superoni, my humans are getting weaker, gotta keep pushing with quadrupeds for a little more before combining both

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this protrusion isn't the top of the eye, it's an extended lacrimal bone, common amongst skydiving birds, birds of prey etc.

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angle of scapula/coracoid in flying vs flightless birds

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triosseal canal, for the supracoracoideus tendon connecting to the humerus, essential for a powered takeoff but not for flight, if you cut the tendon birds can still fly, would need to jump off a branch, or sprint before they could take off though

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dope site, they have a sketchfab page too

best video

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birds DO have a glenoid fossa, one head of their biceps originates there

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since the furcula (articulating with the scapula) and the procoracoid help pass the strength of the downstroke to the upstroke, they must either move a bit or at least bend, but I can't find much on that rn

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There are only a few muscles in the trunk and the tail, but they are very strong and are essential for the bird. These include the lateralis caudae and the levator caudae which control movement of the tail and the spreading of rectrices, giving the tail a larger surface area which helps keep the bird in the air as well as aiding in turning

As the thorax is compressed by the flight muscles during downstroke, the upper ends of the furcula spread apart, expanding by as much as 50% of its resting width, and then contracts.[1] X-ray films of starlings in flight have shown that in addition to strengthening the thorax, the furcula acts like a spring in the pectoral girdle during flight. It expands when the wings are pulled downward and snaps back as they are raised. Acting like a spring, the furcula is able to store some of the energy generated by contraction in the breast muscles, expanding the shoulders laterally, and then releasing the energy during upstroke as the furcula snaps back to the normal position. This, in turn, draws the shoulders toward the midline of the body.[2] While the starling has a moderately large and strong furcula for a bird of its size, there are many species where the furcula is completely absent, for instance scrubbirds, some toucans and New World barbets, some owls, some parrots, turacos, and mesites. These birds are still fully capable of flying. They also have close relatives where the furcula is vestigal, reduced to a thin strap of ossified ligament, seemingly purposeless. Other species have evolved the furcula in the opposite direction, where it has increased in size and become too stiff or massive to act as a spring. In strong flyers like cranes and falcons, the arms of the furcula are large, hollow and quite rigid


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trioseal cannal opposite to the humerus articulation

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flexes digit 2

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bird eye with the sclerotic ring and everything

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lots of fantastic resources here

good book for avian anatomy

Avian Anatomy: Textbook and Colour Atlas

I was confused for a while about how the linea alba/obliques connected to the pubis since in many birds species they are separated, but I guess there's a long horizontal tendon/ligament connecting the 2 ends of the pubis

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the back muscles confuse me

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spinal tendons

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waist super small, birds barely bend at the waist, the obliques are basically just to aid with chest compression maybe, so yeah, abs are mostly irrelevant

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I think the crop covers the furcula

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nice reference for all the different feather groups

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idk how correct this is but I like the simplification of the deltoids + patagial tendon

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hey, chaging from daily update to an update every few days, that makes it easier to keep my notes tidy

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I mostly get feather distribution now

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I wanna go back to practicing fundamentals more seriously as soon as possible, but I wanna get a good feel for the general bodyplan of quadrupeds, shit, need to finish reading the illustion of life too, fuck

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great playlist

I hate posting webm links because I'm pretty sure eventually they get deleted and the url links to a different webm but anywayas here's a cat's back

lifting the scapulars reveals a gap

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dope, like in the leg, extending the with automatically pulls the hand up, that means you need fewer muscles, so lighter

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ok what the fuck

more birds with more callouts, I think when their wings are folded, what you see of the primaries is the underside, meaning the feather overlap would change

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trash perspective on the bottom right one

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I just realised that in a lot of ville sinkkonen paintings, his darkest (or almost darkest) value, is the most compositionally graphic, his paintings are very readable with that value alone, which yeah, sure that's how most people do concept envos nowadays but the way he applies it to creatures is what makes it great


new day, more birds, should go back to cats for a bit, wanna do cetaceans too, their skeletal plan is super simple so it should take me too long

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facial ruff and facial disk

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from katrina van grow, crazy

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types of feathers

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types of wings

idk how accurate these are but

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feather tracts

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short arm = flapping faster = better at taking off

finally, fucking gold

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no feathers in the inside of the leg, avoids irritation

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the number of named feather tracts is ridiculous

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buncha ways to differentiate birds

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useful features

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going to sleeeeep, will continue tomorrow, yeah I know about the lower beak.
reminder to grab some michael defeo and andrea blasich reference tomorrow before I continue with this

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morning again

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still on this, lotta angles are wrong, haven't solved lots of forms

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yeh loose neck skin

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found a way to do the nape feathers

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fun with asymmetric carving stuff

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verticalssssssss, gotta get better at visualizing verticalsss


trying to understand planes better

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trying to make ambient light more manageable, not just making things darker as they get close to others

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it gets fucking curved af

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reflections are fucking complicated

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the opposite side is convex, the closest one concave

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loving this guy

ok, so, the reason diffuse reflection seems to come from right about the same point as specular (albeit slightly offset) is because if it got scattered and dived deeper, it wouldn't come out, it would have been absorbed.

In specular reflection, uneven surfaces will change the direction of reflected light BUT NOT THE INTENSITY, SINCE IT'S ALL SPECULAR..
So there's a HUGE difference between specular on a rough surface, and lambertian.

the thing that artbooks don't bring up that gives this away is the intensity of the reflected light.

I assume this has a bunch to do with metals not transmiting light and the visual effect it has; so, hypothetically, a smooth and a bumpy metal won't have any difference in the general strength of the reflected light (minus whatever gets lost in the surface crevices), pure metals at least.

or maybe not, idk, still looking it up, gotta read up on retroreflective materials as well

tested it a bunch in cycles, might bother to explain later if I understand it better, but for now, basically, maintained shader smoothness and created artificial roughness with alphas and voronoi displacement, left ball same color as the light source, right ball opposite color (so all source light should be absorbed, none reflected), while with the artificial bumpyness I get a ring instead of a clean single specular, I STILL GET LIGHT, EVEN THOUGH NORMALLY IT WOULD SIMPLY GET ABSORBED DUE TO BEING completely outside of the local color spectrum of the ball, so yeah, specular is a completely different thing from diffuse, it can still get "scattered" by a bumpy surface, but it's completely different from the reflection we generally call diffuse or lambertian or whatever, THAT reflection will not exist if the light source and object are of opposite colors, the light will just get absorbed, BUT, if they are of similar colors, the light will enter the object and the stuff that wasn't absorbed (mainly the wavelengths near that of the object and its inside) will come out, hence why shining white light though your ear gives you reddish light; in some cases a lot of light might pass through the object, in others I guess the depth it can reach before being completely absorbed will be shorter than in others, but yeah, that's it basically. In the second photo I bumped up the shader roughness (so no specular), and BAM, all specular gone, all light gone, 

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A lot of people think specular reflections are just more concentrated versions of the other reflected light from the object, that if you concentrated enough planes or whatever, somehow that red light would reach near the brightness (and hue) of the white source light, but nope. The light entered the object (for non-specular reflection), and the non-red wavelengths got absorbed. I.... think with metals all of it gets absorbed with a reasonably thick surface, and you only get specular? I think??

the gist of it is, with specular, maintain the color of the source, with diffuse/lambertian, maintain the color of the object, take into account the differece in color between the surface of the object and its inside, this has tons of repercussions with clearcoats and whatever.
So yeah, specular reflections give you all the wavelegths of the light source, non-speculars have lost the wavelengths that aren't of the color of the object. That's oversimplying it a bit but yeah.

Efflam Mercier did a twitter thread about this a while back but I didn't get it.

I guess this also explains something about why you get a little bit of the local color of the metal AROUND the specular, but eh, still have to look it up.

k, now with a white light of not much power, I get a specular of the color of the metal 
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with the specular node value set high, I get a white specular near the edge(still local color when specular value set low)

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and when I make them nonmetals, the light is still the color of the source but only with specular set high

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BUT, when the light source is strong enough (10k area here), I do get a white specular
I mean metals do have colors so it can't all just be specular, and their color doesn't really change depending on the angle, so the light still has to get in and out somehow.

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HMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, I'll figure this out in basic terms eventually

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so I'm assuming what the bsdf shader calls roughness is just the ability of the material's surface to let some light pass through? not just simulated roughness? otherwise idk why only the local color light would bounce back when it's very very rough

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how does all of this relate to retrorreflective materials, what about butterfly wings that manage to trap all light except of a specific color and bounce that one back, basically managing color with microscopic structures without pigment, can retrorreflective materials reflect light of a single color without the reflector being of that color hmmmmmm

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So, for non specular the light has to penetrate somewhat, or else there'd be no reason for specular to maintain the color of the light source, eeeeexcept when it did in my blender test when the light wasn't super strong so hmmmmmmmmm, will have to test that one out irl.

Seems like this tut series explains everything pretty decently. Basically it's all about the amount of times the light gets to bounce inside the object before coming out/getting absorbed

skin has pretty minimal penetration, jade jewelry has a ton of transmission

red light, only specular reflecting off blue ball to red wall behind light, seems to work as intended, but idk if I'm getting close to the point where cycles just starts using bullshit

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the diffuse/sss component of reflection IS NOT AFFECTED BY THE ROUGHNESS of the surface material, it's homogenous. On the other hand, the specular reflection is very much affected by the surface shape of the object.

I was a bit confused about rendering the refracted light in translucent objects, but it's because I forgot that as long as the light stays in the same environment, the light doesn't really change (I mean it bounces or whatever, I still gotta figure that out) but following the basics of IOR the change in direction only happens at the change in environment, so keeping track of the iluminated parts in the shadow side shouldn't be too hard. HAVE IN MIND THOUGH, that most objects have multiple layers of materials, a human finger isn't just muscle, it's the skin, the fat, the muscle, the bone, marrow, and then bone again again etc.

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so yeah, if you have 100% specular, you can't see the diffuse colors

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gotta look up if cycles does metals correctly

ahhhhhhh so this is what was happening

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gotta learn about specular tints


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k now my question is, given the fresnel equations and whatever, does the chance of reflection increase as the angel of incidence changes, then would microfaceting increase the range of angles where you get sss, hmmmmm

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changing shadow directions

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important to not rely on these tables too much, but still interesting nonetheless

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keep in mind that if you want an object to maybe appear white, do not give it a pure white albedo, just handle it later with the camera and post processing, not doing it like that is unrealistic and adds render time.


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cases of irridescence

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diffraction caused by nanogeometry WILL soften your sadow edges. Does this mean that (when not accounting for sss) the object will get less saturated towards the edge when the light source is white? since you are basically getting a scattered specular mixed with your normal diffused light?, gotta figure out if this has anything to do with the strong local color sss halo around the main specular.

huge difference in effects between nanogeometry(smaller than light wave) and microgeometry

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can divide everything into metals and non metals, semiconductors will rarely appear in entertainment

Gotta look into (like computer screens), how objects are rarely just 1 consistent color all throughout, but more often many different colors that your brain processes as just a single shade of yellow, if you have an object with a few complementary colors (without it ending up looking grey), could you shine a complementary light on it and STILL get a color similar to that light being reflected?

so uhh, a softer (AKA POLISHED) surface, DOES NOT INCREASE SPECULAR REFLECTION (AFAIK), IT JUST MEANS THE SPECULAR WILL SCATTER LESS, MEANING YOU GET CLEARER REFLECTED SHAPES, and potentially, a stronger light reachers your eye from certain angles, BUT IT DOESN'T INCREASE SPECULAR REFLECTION OVERALL. That being said, and idk if this is contradictory yet, but, really low angles of incidence (close to 180º) do seem to increase the chance of specular, this part is really fucking confusing, because with the planar way of thinking we have in art, can lead to the conclusion that the reflection is stronger near the edges of a curved surface merely because there's more planes there.

Still figuring this out, just writing it here so I can re-read and address it later

Also, when using sss vs diffuse shader, it's uh, both sss, a lot simply has to do with the distance between the camera and the object.
One example from the siggraph talk is the lego movie, and skin, from far away plastic and skin look like what you'd get from a basic diffuse shader, but when seen from very upclose, you notice the sss elements.

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ok cool yeah, the more on-edge you look at a surface, the more reflective it is

according to the udacity interactive 3d graphics course, part of the reason why film gets away with 24fps and looks natural is from motion blur

LMFAOOO does this mean metals get less reflective for a little bit before reaching the edge? at least with p-polarized and non polarized?

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I guess this is why simulated materials without sss look metallic

the wikipedia page for sss is pretty good actually

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DOOOOPE, SSS IS SUPER USEFUL FOR SHOWING SCALE!!!, haven't found this video for streaming on youtube so eh, you'll have to download it :/

basically this

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cool artist, and cool quote

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emission, ambient, diffuse, specular

tinted metals are a fuck, my feet hurt I wanna go home

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gold is pretty bright too

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there's models that go beyond lambert, like Diffuse-Specular Tradeoff (as specular increases due to fresnel there's less light available for diffuse)only relevant for 3d rendering I assume, and brdfs that take into account Surface Roughness

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probably already wrote it but, a diffuse/scattered specular reflection will make the local color of your object get brighter AND less saturated towards the specular highlight (if the light is white), in a perfectly polished material with a perfect reflection, then the source light will just be a sharp reflection.

good vid

in pbr the microsurface channel is all about the scattering of specular reflected light, not with sss

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from the cryengine documentation site

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cool model for breaking down flesh, gonna try to find a more modern one though

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visible blushing has a bunch to do with skin tone(natural skin tone, not makeup or tanning)

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they have specific directions

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for a really long time I wondered what made some parts of the face(and hands) more plasticky and reflective, great portrait artists managed to capture those qualities very well, guess this was it, there's different distributions, different lengths, gotta take all of those into account

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they are pretty "glassy", which means there isn't really a diffuse element (in the sense of a color given from it not being absorbed), so you know, like, albedo, it has no albedo color, I guess plastic is kind of similar

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I'm a dumbass I hadn't even through of black dielectrics

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layered and heterogenous materials are nuts, in this case all or most of the yellow-orange-red bounced off at the surface, so the light you get on the other side is the blue and green that usually get's almost immediately absorbed under normal conditions

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TRAAAAAASH, let's see if I can fix the graphic read, also the nose wrinkles

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added shitty SSS to the previous one

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I need to watch this whole series

lighting clouds

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great reference here

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short as fuck cars lmao, glad I realised 

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the door frame inside the grid feels much darker when I look at it irl, especially with one eye, it's almost like once I look with 2 eyes my brain processes that it's a vertical line of the same value and kind of reasons that it's consistent.

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this is the coolest design exercise I've ever seen

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penguin feather coat, nuts

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TIRESSSS, dope for exiting rain water, 30% of it exits through the sides, crazy

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drip rail

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car doors aren't completely sealed off, water can enter through the windows, so you got drainholes in the bottom

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panel names

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I wanna cry bruh

Hey just wanna say thank i had a blast trying a few thing on your head you made it was the perfect thing for me to practice some contrast.

I hope you don't mind me sharing the result with you in here.

Attached Files Image(s)

My Sketchbook
The journey of an artist truly begin when he can learn from everyone error.
Teamwork make your dream work.
Asking help is the key to growth.
cool stuff dude

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pretty even cut

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trash but learning

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COLLECT JUNK, PLAY AROUND WITH IT, DAILY, set it up, trial and error, you don't have to paint it just observe it every day, hans bacher recommended something similar

love this, all the spheres are the same color

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the blender guru video on photorealism calls the dynamic range stops "f-stops", those are completely different things, the vid is wrong.

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unreal engine albedo charts

gotta research spectral rendering

pixar has a khan academy course on color


the kelvin color temperature model makes a lot of this stuff a lot easier

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avoid 0 value in rgb light AND albedo channels

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a lot of these notes are from chris brejon's site btw

fucking christ

old ass pixar paper

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forgot hans bacher had a blog, gonna read and study the fuck out of it

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a way of saying this is that metals have a different fresnel curve for different lightwaves

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remember this being very important for gold

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same setup, one material absorbs, one doesn't, peep the huge difference in shadows

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now without any specular or sheen tint on the white material, full roughness, idk why the fresnel halo thing popped up, probably the roughness

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I hate sss in blender

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gotta use random walk when testing

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but yeah this is interesting

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arnold has great documentation

volume nodes are fucking powerful

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enabling the render pass layers makes a lot of this stuff way easier to break down

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inverse square law

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since the model only works with an ideally diffuse surface (no absorbtion, no specular etc. at least as I understand it), this isn't useful for calculating the brightness of the reflection but it is for calculating how much light hits each normal

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squinting and crossing eyes makes it easier to see the relative values, keeping them consistent depending on where the planes face throughout the image

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this whole page is faaaaaaantastic

this is a fantastic guide

multiple types of scattering, research all of them

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most of the descriptions for this online are written terribly, but I guess it's kind of similar to light falloff, only instead of uniformly losing energy as it gets further, more energetic wavelengths (blue) get scattered earlier, while less energetic ones (red) are able to penetrate deeper; all of this affected by the albedo of each layer of course, since some wavelengths will get absorbed at different depths, venous tissue seems to be kinda colorless and mostly translucent.

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UGHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH, I mean they look more grey than blue, so I guess that's the optical illusion part, there still is some scattering involved

noooo hypodermis in eyeliiiids

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best website ever

Just watched Klaus, god the art was insane, prince of egypt on steroids, also looking a lot at the art of austin briggs and francis marshall

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without blood skin is, yellow gray-ish

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25 water molecules per droplet

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ridiculously important

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slw means supercooled liquid water

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ok so fogbows are a thing

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polychromatic lightttttttt

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I'm the dumbest fucker, this whole time I didn't realise

1. Titanium and other metals (like iron) that can get rainbow colors get them for the same reason oil puddles do, thin film interference, the oxyde layer is around the width of the visible wave spectrum (the light that went inside and then out is slightly "delayed").

2. Different wavelengths get refracted at different angles, that's why prisms make rainbows

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thinner towards uv light

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if you use white light you get a rainbow where blue is closer to the middle

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think of how thin the film of oil/grease/oxyde has to be for this to happen, it's crazy cool, different widths will give you different destructive and constructive results, it seems as it gets thinner it gets bluer with oil.

there's a whole wiki page about soap bubbles

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pink, magenta etc can tell you a lot about the physical structure of an object, since by force it has to be multiple wavelengths, all visible ones minus green,

gotta take falloff into account after this but still, pretty dope

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dopest thing ever

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the reason you get clouds near mountain and snowy mountain ranges even though the snow is obv cool, is because the air current pushes the air up against the mountain, then cools there and clouds form.

on the other side the cool air sinks and compresses, compression results in increased temperature, then the cloud dissipates into invisible water vapor. in coastal areas you gotta think where the air is coming from (probably the ocean side)

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chinook winds

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most rain starts as snow but melts before it reachers the ground

as the hail stone climbs up and down inside the cumulonimbus cloud, it grows, and if you cut one in half you can see the layers, like a tree or an onion

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there-s lots of intracloud lightning

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pay attention to the step leader, you get the FLASH when it connects

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earth emits radiation of a longer wavelength than the sun, longer wavelength radiation carries less energy than short;
the amount of energy emitted as thermal radiation is proportional to the temperature of the object

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cavitation, bubbles collapse pretty quick

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easy and dope

prolly the best one

aight so this is how valley fog works, especially with snowy valleys

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Damn, this is and inspiring sketchbook! I love how deep into subjects you get. I need to do that aswell.
thaaank you

preparing to do a 3d film frame render, doodling around comps, trying to find something interesting enough to get me through all the sculpting and shader work

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dope tip, draw the regular head shape, then the open mouth shape, then just stretch the jaw to fit it

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this guy is dope

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interesting comments from Hans Bacher about PRISMA

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this is his blog if you don't know about it

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gurney on massing values

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have a dominant value that takes up more than 50% of the image

edge notan practice, turner studies shall follow

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2 parts, "the cure for measuring is more measuring", I... gotta... practice... that... more... fuck...

"first make the shape, then get it in the right place, ask questions, is it wider, is it taller"

"writing is rewriting, painting is repainting, adjusting" -Benson

cool channel

cool blog

take your time at first, make it suggestive of the feel of the thing, but don't make it detailed, or it will feel precious and you won't want to change it

A lot of stuff to remember here man! I love how meticulous you are with research - it's like an encyclopedia in here!

If you don't mind me asking, what're your goals? Where are you headed with this? Or are you doing this just for fun?

Keep it going anyway dude!

“Today, give a stranger one of your smiles. It might be the only sunshine he sees all day.” -- H. Jackson Brown Jr.

CD Sketchbook


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